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Steel industry faces "carbon reduction" test

2018-06-08


China's iron and steel enterprises to participate in carbon trading, in the long run can form a backward force mechanism to eliminate backward production capacity, and promote the transformation and upgrading of the iron and steel industry. After the power industry was first included in the national carbon emissions trading market at the end of 2017, the carbon trading market in the steel industry has also begun to enter a critical stage of advancement.

China's iron and steel enterprises to participate in carbon trading, in the long run can form a backward force mechanism to eliminate backward production capacity, and promote the transformation and upgrading of the iron and steel industry.

After the power industry was first included in the national carbon emissions trading market at the end of 2017, the carbon trading market in the steel industry has also begun to enter a critical stage of advancement.

Not long ago, Li Xinchuang, Dean of the Metallurgical Industry Planning and Research Institute, revealed at the low-carbon transformation capacity building and technical exchange meeting of the steel industry held in Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu that the carbon emission trading quota plan for the steel industry is currently being studied and formulated.

As an energy-intensive industry, the steel industry accounts for about 7% of global greenhouse gas emissions. China is also the world's largest steel producer and consumer, accounting for nearly 50% of global crude steel production. The industry's carbon emissions account for nearly 15% of China's total carbon emissions and more than 60% of the global steel industry's carbon emissions.

In this regard, Li Xinchuang emphasized that addressing climate change is the common responsibility of the global steel industry. China's steel industry and enterprises should fully realize that green and low-carbon development is an important direction for deepening the reform of the ecological civilization construction system in the new era.

opportunities and challenges coexist

Looking back at 2017, the low-carbon transformation of the global steel industry is facing new opportunities and challenges-the International Energy Agency launched the global steel industry low-carbon technology roadmap research; EU steel companies restarted three new low-carbon smelting research plans; China officially launched The carbon emissions trading system will become the world's largest carbon trading market. From the implementation of carbon trading countries, the steel industry is generally concerned about carbon trading. European steel companies believe that the EU's ambitious emission reduction targets have increased corporate costs, and companies currently lack more advanced technology and sufficient funds to achieve emission reduction targets; the Korea Iron and Steel Association believes that insufficient carbon emission quotas will affect steel production and aggravate The development dilemma of the steel industry. Some analysts believe that the participation of China's iron and steel enterprises in carbon trading may also have a certain adverse impact on the industry in the short term, but in the long run, it can form a reverse mechanism to eliminate backward production capacity and promote the transformation and upgrading of the iron and steel industry. By participating in carbon trading, on the one hand, it can promote enterprises to improve production processes, update production equipment and use low-carbon energy; on the other hand, it can promote enterprises to actively innovate and abandon high-carbon emission products and businesses.

At present, China's iron and steel enterprises are also actively involved in carbon market trading, Baosteel is one of the early enterprises involved in carbon trading. Zhang Jiancheng, assistant to the president of Shenzhen Carbon Emissions Exchange Co., Ltd., introduced to reporters that when Baosteel participated in the pilot work of carbon emissions trading, it actively participated in the formulation of relevant policies and standards in Shanghai, organized technical exchanges with relevant professional institutions, and supported Shanghai's carbon emissions. The construction of the trading market. During the pilot period, Baosteel's carbon emissions decreased year by year, and the cumulative carbon emissions decreased by 5% compared with the quota issued by Shanghai.

In addition, after applying for five CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects, WISCO has reduced its carbon dioxide emissions by 3.16 million tons per year. Shougang Group is also actively developing national certified voluntary emission reduction projects.

China has promised to the international community that "carbon dioxide emissions will peak around 2030 and strive to reach the peak as soon as possible, and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will be reduced by 60% to 65% compared with 2005". As a key carbon emission industry, the steel industry is an important part of fulfilling the responsibility of national climate change targets.

According to statistics, in the past 10 years, the carbon dioxide intensity per ton of steel in the steel industry has dropped by about 25%, making an important contribution to the implementation of the national climate change goal. However, in spite of this, under the premise that the level of industrial added value has not been significantly improved, the contribution of the iron and steel industry to the low-carbon economy is still insufficient, and the task of fulfilling the future low-carbon development goals is facing challenges.

Forced industry low-carbon transition

The steel industry is the main target and core participant of the carbon trading market, and mandatory carbon dioxide emission reduction will also force steel companies to develop low-carbon technologies.

Li Bing, director of the Low Carbon Development Research Center of the Metallurgical Industry Planning and Research Institute, said that technology leadership is the commanding height of low-carbon transformation and development, covering de-carbon technologies focusing on process control, carbon-free technologies focusing on source control, and de-carbon technologies focusing on end control.

In order to meet the upcoming carbon trading, major domestic steel companies are actively exploring from the technical side. According to Bo Hongwei, Vice Minister of Energy and Environmental Protection Department of Zhanjiang Base of Baowu Group, Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Steelmaking Project adopts the new converter flue gas waste heat recovery technology. The primary flue gas of the high-temperature dust-containing converter enters the dust removal tower through the skirt cover and vaporization cooling flue in an unburned state. The flue gas temperature can be reduced from 1000 ℃ to 830 ℃, and the recovery amount of steam can be increased from 80kg/ton to 9kg/ton, at the same time, the concentration of particulate matter at the flue gas outlet (standard state) is less than 20 mg/m3.

Li Bing also said that in the next stage, the blast furnace-converter process smelting process in China's iron and steel industry will still dominate, and fuel consumption such as coal and coke will account for more than 90% of the primary energy of iron and steel enterprises. Strengthening the optimization of raw fuel structure is also an important link in the low-carbon development of iron and steel. The key optimization links should be focused on the raw material preparation process, coking process, sintering process, pellet process and ironmaking process of steel production.

"High carbonization of energy structure is the main source of structural pollution in the iron and steel industry. Carbon emission trading will accelerate the low-carbon transformation of the iron and steel industry, improve the energy structure, and solve the ecological and environmental problems caused by coal as the main energy structure from the source." Li Xinchuang said.

At the same time, he said that the iron and steel industry is a key industry to reduce production capacity, adjust structure, and promote transformation, speed up the implementation of green transformation with the concept of low-carbon development, develop energy conservation, environmental protection, renewable energy and other emerging industries, and achieve lower costs and better resource allocation. it will be an important starting point to speed up the transformation from "old kinetic energy" to "new kinetic energy" in the iron and steel industry.

Enlightenment of low carbon transition in developed countries

How to develop low-carbon economy and low-carbon industry in China, the experience of developed countries is worth learning and reference.

Li Bing said that Japan has re-evaluated the long-term impact of the steel industry on surrounding industries and people's lives from the perspective of the entire life cycle, and expanded the scope of energy consumption assessment of the steel industry. It is worth noting that in the process of low-carbon development in Japan, it is particularly important for the government to implement fiscal policies to assist, including the budget policy, tax reduction policy, and carbon tax collection policy implemented by Japan in the process of promoting carbon emission reduction.

In addition, the German government's determination is also strong enough. On the basis of following the relevant EU low-carbon directives, the standards set for itself are more stringent, and the resulting challenges are even greater. At the same time of the establishment of relevant laws, Germany has carried out practical low-carbon actions mainly in the aspects of energy structure, improving energy efficiency, and the development of renewable energy, established a carbon dioxide trade emission system, and made an analysis of greenhouse gas emissions.

"China should also change the concept of green development in time, actively promote the progress of low-carbon technology, and implement the low-carbon development of the iron and steel industry." Li Bing thus suggested.

Li Xinchuang said that on the one hand, China's iron and steel industry and enterprises should actively strengthen communication with government departments, timely understand and grasp the development direction of policies and paths, and actively plan and formulate low-carbon development strategic plans, so as to win broader development space for industry enterprises; on the other hand, low-carbon transformation is the inherent requirement of enterprise development, and enterprises should establish carbon strategic thinking, take the initiative to innovate, and consolidate the capacity building of low-carbon development, strengthen the construction of professional talents, learn to understand excellent enterprises and advanced technologies, and strengthen the implementation of effective energy-saving and carbon-reducing actions to improve quality and efficiency.

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